Database management is the process for managing data that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing and distributing data it to applications and users making edits as needed and monitoring changes to the data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory, to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that are organized according to some scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields called attributes which provide information about data entities. The most well-known type of database today is a relational model, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require the changing of various databases.
The majority of DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability and other operational issues including the layout of the physical storage. The external level determines how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of different external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data to improve performance.